Reactions with halogens[ edit ] Main article: Free radical halogenation Alkanes react with halogens in a so-called free radical halogenation reaction. The hydrogen atoms of the alkane are progressively replaced by halogen atoms. Free radicals are the reactive species that participate in the reaction, which usually leads to a mixture of products.
When we think about a mobile version of an environmental analytical lab, we might imagine a stripped down operation designed to provide minimal or rudimentary services. Rebecca Johnson and Dr. Underground Storage Tank Program. This program was initiated by the U. Environmental Protection Agency and adopted in one form or another by the individual states after it became known that many underground storage tanks were leaking hazardous materials such as petroleum or other chemical products into the environment.
As a result, owners of gas stations, tank farms and related installations were under mandate to replace the leaking tanks and decontaminate the environment polluted by the leakage.
Determining the extent of the contamination at storage tank sites pursuant to remediation required the sampling and analysis of soils to establish a contamination boundary. This approach requires an ongoing process of sampling and analysis, a technique termed "dig and chase.
With a mobile environmental lab on site, synchronized sampling and analysis could be carried out expeditiously, enabling the concentration gradient and boundary of contamination across the site to be rapidly determined. Thus, a project that might have taken weeks to months using a fixed-base facility could be completed in hours to days by a mobile lab operating on site.
It soon became apparent that time-critical analysis was in demand. Other sites with comparable ground contamination from stored hazardous materials included dry cleaners and tank farms.
In all of these applications, on site analysis by the mobile lab provided an efficient means for assessing site contamination pursuant to subsequent environmental cleanup.
In commercial real estate transactions, for example, a question of possible contamination could be settled by sending out a Mobile lab to determine if contamination was present and the nature and extent of it. Today, an analysis that might require a one-week turnaround for a fixed-base lab can be handled by an on-site Mobile environmental lab in 20 minutes.
Typically, analysis fees plus additional rush charges levied by fixed-base laboratories often exceed the cost of using the mobile laboratories faster analysis turnaround capability.
However, space constraints, the need for a road worthy installation, and intermittent connection to the power grid, demands the exercise of significant creativity in putting together a mobile configuration that is flexible enough to execute a broad variety of analytical tasks with state-of-the-art performance.
Four of the laboratories are installed in vans Fig. C generators with backup, environmental controls, lighting, refrigerators, sinks with running water and lab benches. A special harness was custom designed for the autosampler towers to prevent rocking while in transit.
As a concession to road shock, the mass spectrometers were ordered with diffusion pumps instead of less rugged turbopumps. Solvents, which might be thought a potential hazard in a mobile lab installation, are not at all problematic.
Modern analytical protocols minimize solvent usage, so each laboratory carries no more than ml. Other extractions are carried out in a fume hood with non-flammable methylene chloride. To guard against breakage, solvents are racked in their Styrofoam shipping packages and all waste is retained for proper disposal.
Each laboratory is operated by a degreed chemist.
Although many of the analyses performed are routine, we feel that the need to adapt methods to the non-routine circumstances of each assignment requires a level of independent scientific judgement that is beyond the skills and training of the average laboratory technician.
On The Road Typically, the mobile environmental lab operators begin their workday by starting up the generators, loading daily calibration samples and running both calibration checks and blanks en route to the analysis site. Analysis of samples, spikes and duplicates continue on the return trip.
The biggest challenge in choosing to perform analyses in transit was overcoming the prior belief that it could not be done. Now, running analyses in a vehicle moving at mph is considered routine. For the most part, standard environmental analytical methods are not affected by the vehicle's movement, although certain adjustments are made to compensate for the absence of a standard power supply.
For one, the mobile labs are equipped with a sophisticated electrical system to ensure uninterrupted vacuum and heating for instruments and detectors. Each mobile environmental lab is equipped with an inverter which seamlessly switches to battery power as soon as the vehicle is unplugged from the power grid.
When the vehicles start up, the supply of electricity is shifted from battery to generator without interruption. In addition to power management, the inverter is designed to protect the instruments from power surges. As an additional failsafe, battery backup keeps the MS under vacuum in the event that both line and standby generators go down.
Analytical data processing and data management is handled by onboard computers using report templates. Once the analyses are complete, preliminary reports are generated for clients on site.
On return to base, the data is transferred to the system computer and a final report is generated. This type of analysis can be performed by a standalone GC with flame ionization detector.TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARONS 20 3. IDENTITY AND ANALYSIS OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS. During the refining process, crude oil is separated into .
HC51M. FID Hydrocarbon (CH 4, nmHC, THC) Analyzer that uses the principle of flame ionization detection to measure the concentration of hydrocarbons in the range of ppm..
Graphite 52M - Heated FID Volatile Organic Compounds Analyzer. Graphite 52M - Heated FID Volatile Organic Compounds Analyzer to monitor HC, NmHC and CH 4.
Analysis of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Gasoline and Naphtha with the Agilent Series Gas Chromatograph and a Single Polar Capillary Column Application The People’s Republic of China National Standards GB  describes the quality of unleaded finished gasoline for motor vehicles.
Analysis of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Environmental Media(this volume) discusses and critiques analytical methods for quantifying TPH, petroleum mixtures and individual petroleum constituents.
Wetherill Park NSW Services & Products. Oil, fuel & coolant analysis. POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS by HPLC: METHOD , Issue 3, dated 15 January - Page 4 of 9 NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), Fourth Edition.